Atom and Electron Configuration 1

Atom and Electron Configuration 1: Electron configuration is a prerequisite for acquiring any knowledge of chemistry. Electron configuration is the basis of knowledge of chemistry. The smallest unit of matter is the atom. The scope of the knowledge of chemistry continues to expand around the atom of the fundamental particle of matter.

To easily understand and explain any properties of an atom, it is important to know the electron configuration. The electron configuration is a representation of what kind of numeric format the electrons inside an atom revolve around the nucleus of that atom. Why do the electrons revolve around the nucleus?

To understand the rotation of electrons, we will not explain it today with the conventional Rutherford or Bohr atomic model. It is possible to understand the rotation of an electron without following Rutherford or Bohr’s atomic model or conventional interpretation. So let’s first look at the figure below.

Atom and Electron Configuration 1

[ Atom and Electron Configuration 1 ]

It is a proportional figure where the size of protons, neutrons, and electrons (on a specific scale) and the actual mass are written. How about making this image easier?

It turns out that the size of a proton is equal to the size of a neutron. Their mass is almost equal (first figure). But an electron is much smaller in size and mass than a nucleus. Only one electron contains 1 part mass of 1840 times more than protons or neutrons.

How do electrons, protons, and neutrons reside in an atom?

 

 

As can be seen from the figure, protons and neutrons are located together in the nucleus. It is better to say that what we call the orbits of electrons are actually electron clouds. However, we will not explain the electron cloud at the outset, for the convenience of understanding; we will now describe the electron configuration in terms of energy level or orbit.

There is a large gap between the nucleus and the electron cloud/electron orbits. Due to the charge, electrons and protons attract each other.

But, as we know, mass is an important factor in the case of the ball of attraction. The mass of protons and neutrons in the nucleus attracts electrons, the mass of electrons has nothing to do with it.

This is why electrons revolve around the nucleus but do not fall into the center. This is because, with its own mass, it also attracts protons, that is, an inverse force of attraction is created, but the electrons begin to rotate due to the lack of mass.

Just like our moon and earth or earth and sun.

Thus, if an object wants to come out with all the mass in the center, and the center does not stop attracting it, then the object will continue to revolve around the center or the center of gravity.
The picture below can be better understood.

The image above is of a hydrogen atom. But it is only a fictional image or an illustrated image. What if a real picture of a hydrogen atom is seen before the electron configuration of the atom?
Let’s see the image below then.


Aneta Stodolna, a scientist from the FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), and her colleagues discovered a “quantum microscope” and the image above was taken with that microscope. This image is of a real hydrogen atom, with a nucleus (protons and neutrons) in the center and a round electron cloud outside. Sometimes a huge space is seen empty.

Now let’s look at the arrangement of electrons that go round and round the center of gravity.
The electrons are arranged in layers and rotate, thus making the radius of the first layer and the center quite small, resulting in a smaller circumference. Subsequent orbits gradually become larger. The orbits are indicated as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and also as K, L, M, N. The first orbit may have a maximum of two electrons.

This is determined by the 2n2 formula. Here n = the number of the orbit (1,2,3,4 etc.).
Then there will be 2 x (2) 2 = 8 electrons in the 2nd orbit. The third level will have 18 electrons.
Let us see what the electron configuration of potassium (K) looks like. The atomic number of potassium and number of electrons 19 –

 

But electron configuration is not just about orbit. Quantum numbers and different principles are required to form electrons. We will continue to write about the electron configuration and its details at ChemistryGOLN.com.
Inside these orbits are various sub-energy levels or orbitals. The electron holding capacity and energy are determined according to the axis of each orbital. The orbitals are s, p, d, and f; a total of four in number.

The figure above shows the only field of the s orbital (sub-orbital). Each orbit has s orbital. A sub-orbital can have a maximum of two electrons.

The P orbital has three such sub-orbitals. The first energy level has no p orbital. The p orbital starts from the second energy level. Px, Py, and Pz can accommodate two electrons in each of these three sub orbitals. Similarly, the d orbital starts from the third energy level. d orbital has 5 sub orbitals in total. Thus f orbital has 7 sub orbitals.

According to the description, s orbital can hold 2, p orbital 6, d total 10, and f orbital 14 electrons. But f will start from the fourth orbit.

The following picture shows the sub orbitals of the f orbital.


Now let’s look at an orbital-based electron configuration.

Let’s look at another electron configuration. Fe-26:

S, p, d, f orbitals seem random? So let’s move on to the next article. Then the electron configuration will no longer seem difficult to you.

 

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