Periodic Table of the Elements: Periodic table of chemical elements is a breakthrough in chemistry. There is no way to study chemistry without a periodic table. The periodic table is basically a table consisting of atoms. The elements in the periodic table are arranged based on their atomic number. However, the main basis of the periodic table is the electron configuration.
[ Periodic Table of the Elements]
A periodic table is a detailed and informative table of information in which the several properties of the elements are linked in a series. The figure above shows a periodic table with detailed information. This current periodic table is called the modern periodic table. Rows parallel to the ground from left to right of the periodic table are called Row or Periods.
The electrons of an element are arranged in orbits, the orbit number is equal to that element’s position at the period in the periodic table. For example, the electron configuration of Na (sodium) is 2, 8, 1. That is, the total number of orbits of Na is three. Therefore Na is located in Period-3 of the Periodic Table. Again the atomic number of potassium (K) is 19.
The electron configuration of K is 2, 8, 8, 1; That is, the number of orbits of K is four. Similarly, the electron configuration of calcium (Ca) is 2, 8, 8, 2; An element consisting of Ca and four orbits like K. Therefore, K and Ca are found in the periodic table as well as in period-4. In 1869, scientist Dmitri Mendeleev found similarities between the religions of the elements and made a periodic table. Below is an image of Mandela’s handwritten periodic table:
Today’s periodic table is basically divided into four large blocks. These are determined by the orbitals in which the last electron of the element enters. The blocks are s, p, d, and f.
As shown in the figure above, the s block is marked with green color on the left side, the p block with red color on the right side, d with yellow color in the middle, and the blue color f block indicated below. At the same time, it is written in which orbital the latest energy level electron has entered.
However, the groups in the periodic table indicate the most important information in the periodic table. From top to bottom there are a total of 18 vertical columns, which are called groups. Group No. 1 is calculated from the left and group No. 18 is found on the far right. Group 18 is the group of inert gases.
Notice that all inactive elements belong to the p block. However, he is in group 18 with two electrons. However, the electron configuration of He is 1s2. He has been placed in group 18 as inert gas even after s block element. Group 1 is called Alkali and group 2 is called the Alkaline Earth metal group. Group 11 is called the Coin Metal Group. The names of the groups in the periodic table are given in the figure below.
Group 16 is called chalcogen and group 17 is called halogen group. Because all of the 17 groups are halide salt producers. The two phases below the periodic table are basically part of period 6 and 7. They belong to group-3. But they have been given a place at the bottom as there is a problem to create a stage with group 3.
However, in this case, they have been shown separately by keeping the f block element separate. If a 3d image could always represent a periodic table, then perhaps the periodic table with the La and Ac groups would be similar to the figure below:
This figure shows that lanthanides and actinides are actually part of phases 6 and 7 and they are in group 3. Rules for reading periodic tables from left to right. Even if there are no atoms in the middle, if you read the serial number of atomic numbers from left to right, you can find the elements according to the atomic number. For example, there is no atom between H and He. But, one on the far left, another on the far right.
If you read from left to right, the serial number of atomic numbers will match 1, and 2. Now move to the bottom row and read from left to right again. However, to know the group, features, etc. can be read by group or zigzag method. Periodic tables give a clear idea of the radius of the elements.
Going from left to right of the periodic table, the radius tends to get smaller, as the energy levels remain the same, but the number of electrons increases. In this case, the attraction increases. Again the radius from top to bottom tends to increase, as the number of orbits increases.
The diagram above shows the radius of the elements of the periodic table. Many features change when the periodic table moves from left to right, from right to left, angled, from top to bottom, or from bottom to top. Below is a picture showing some significant changes.
The modern periodic table is based on the electron configuration. There have been many theories, rules, and many studies in chemistry on the periodic table and more articles will be published on ChemistryGOLN.com in the future.
The figure above shows the electron configuration of the last orbital/energy level of each element in the periodic table.